Have you heard about the “portability provision?” Believe it or not, your estate (or your spouse’s estate, if you were to pass first) could benefit tremendously if the executor of your estate elects this provision. In short, the portability election allows the transfer of any unused estate tax exclusion amount of the first spouse to die (commonly referred to as the “deceased spouse’s unused exemption” or “DSUE”) to the surviving spouse, who can then utilize the remaining amount to benefit his or her gift or estate tax purposes. Essentially, this provision operates as a safety net for couples with joint assets exceeding the exemption amount for the estate of the first spouse to die because the surviving spouse can reduce his or her estate or gift tax liability. Depending on the size of the estate, electing this provision can mean saving a significant amount on estate taxes.
Although this portability provision technically expired after 2012, Congress passed the American Tax Relief Act of 2012 (“ATRA”), which made the “portability” of the applicable exclusion amount between spouses permanent. This favorable estate tax rule should be incorporated into estate plans because as previously mentioned, the potential impact of the portability provision can be quite substantial.
For example, suppose the following: A husband and wife each own $2 million individually and $3 million jointly with rights of survivorship, bringing their estate to a total of $7 million in assets. Suppose their wills instruct that all assets pass first to the surviving spouse and then to the couple’s children. If the husband dies in 2014, his $2 million in assets is covered by the unlimited marital deduction. His $5.34 million exemption remains unused (his DSUE). When the wife dies, her estate can use that leftover DSUE amount, in addition to the exemption for the year in which she dies, to shelter the remaining $7 million of assets from tax. ATRA has permanently set the top estate tax rate at 40 percent. As such, if the wife died later in 2014, $1.66 million in assets would have been subject to estate tax without the portability provision. Therefore, the family saves $664,000 in federal estate tax (40% of $1.66 million).
Not only is the portability provision an excellent tool to use for estate and gift planning considerations, the provision can also be used as a negotiation tool during marital agreement negotiations. The portability provision can be viewed as a highly valuable asset that attorneys and their clients should consider when drafting marital agreements. However, there are also certain limitations to be aware of. For example, the executor of a deceased spouse’s estate must elect portability for the provision to take effect, and the election must be made on an estate tax return filed within nine months of death.*
If you or your loved ones are in the planning stages of creating an estate plan, take the necessary steps to ensure that you and your family members are maximizing the benefits available to you by an experienced, knowledgeable estate planning attorney guide you through the process. Estate planning laws are constantly evolving and having a trusted estate planning attorney by your side can prove to be invaluable. The attorneys at Lonich Patton Ehrlich Policastri have decades of experience handling complex estate planning matters, including wills and living trusts, and we are happy to offer you a free consultation.
Please remember that each individual situation is unique and results discussed in this post are not a guarantee of future results. While this post may detail general legal issues, it is not legal advice. Use of this site does not create an attorney-client relationship.